SoR

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System of Record API

The EmoDB System of Record (SoR) exposes a RESTful API. You can access the API directly over HTTP or via a Java client library.

Java Client Library

Add the following to your Maven POM (set the <emo-version> to the current version of EmoDB):

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.bazaarvoice.emodb</groupId>
    <artifactId>emodb-sor-client</artifactId>
    <version>${emo-version}</version>
</dependency>

Minimal Java client without ZooKeeper or Dropwizard:

String emodbHost = "localhost:8080";  // Adjust to point to the EmoDB server.
String apiKey = "xyz";  // Use the API key provided by EmoDB
MetricRegistry metricRegistry = new MetricRegistry(); // This is usually a singleton passed
DataStore dataStore = ServicePoolBuilder.create(DataStore.class)
                .withHostDiscoverySource(new DataStoreFixedHostDiscoverySource(emodbHost))
                .withServiceFactory(DataStoreClientFactory.forCluster("local_default", new MetricRegistry()).usingCredentials(apiKey))
                .withMetricRegistry(metricRegistry)
                .buildProxy(new ExponentialBackoffRetry(5, 50, 1000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS));

... use "dataStore" to access the System of Record ...

ServicePoolProxies.close(dataStore);

Robust Java client using ZooKeeper, SOA and Dropwizard:

@Override
protected void initialize(Configuration configuration, Environment environment) throws Exception {
    // YAML-friendly configuration objects.
    ZooKeeperConfiguration zooKeeperConfig = configuration.getZooKeeper();
    JerseyClientConfiguration jerseyClientConfig = configuration.getHttpClientConfiguration();
    DataStoreFixedHostDiscoverySource sorEndPointOverrides = configuration.getSorEndPointOverrides();

    // Connect to ZooKeeper.
    CuratorFramework curator = zooKeeperConfig.newManagedCurator(environment);
    curator.start();

    // Configure the Jersey HTTP client library.
    Client jerseyClient = new JerseyClientFactory(jerseyClientConfig).build(environment);

    String apiKey = "xyz";  // Use the API key provided by EmoDB

    // Connect to the DataStore using ZooKeeper (Ostrich) host discovery.
    ServiceFactory<DataStore> dataStoreFactory =
        DataStoreClientFactory.forClusterAndHttpClient("local_default", jerseyClient).usingCredentials(apiKey);
    DataStore dataStore = ServicePoolBuilder.create(DataStore.class)
            .withHostDiscoverySource(sorEndPointOverrides)
            .withHostDiscovery(new ZooKeeperHostDiscovery(curator, dataStoreFactory.getServiceName()))
            .withServiceFactory(dataStoreFactory)
            .buildProxy(new ExponentialBackoffRetry(5, 50, 1000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS));
    environment.addHealthCheck(new DataStoreHealthCheck(dataStore));
    environment.manage(new ManagedServicePoolProxy(dataStore));

    ... use "dataStore" to access the System of Record ...
}

REST calls

The Java client library is a convenience; EmoDB exposes a RESTful API for use by any client. Examples for both the Java and REST calls are provided below.

Note that the REST API requires API keys and that the Java client includes these in all requests automatically. For clarity the API key header is not included each REST example below, but in a properly secured system you would need to add it to each request.

Table Management

Tables and Placements

A table is a bucket containing JSON documents. Creating a table is relatively cheap, and you can create as many tables as you want. In general, pick the granularity of your tables to match the granularity of your Hadoop jobs. Each Hadoop job will scan every document in a table. For example, a good starting recommendation is to create one table per type per client, eg. “review:testcustomer”.

On table creation, the user needs to specify which placement does the table belong to. For example, global_table may be in the global:ugc placement. A placement is an EmoDB abstraction that tells Emo which Cassandra cluster and keyspace to place the table in.

Placements can be colocated in a single Cassandra cluster or each can have a dedicated Cassandra cluster. That configuration is left as an implementation detail of EmoDB service, so that the users of the service do not have to concern themselves about data centers or specific cassandra clusters. This also allows operational flexibility when scaling up in HA manner by moving a particular placement to its own Cassandra cluster, for instance.

Placements are configured in EmoDB’s config.yaml, and the Cassandra keyspaces for System of Record are configured in config-ddl.yaml. Note that there is a convention to follow while naming a placement: <keyspace>:<prefix_of_delta_table>

Create Table

Create a new table. All data centers must up and available when tables are created so the data store can ensure that table metadata has replicated to all servers before the table can be used.

HTTP:

PUT /sor/1/_table/<table>?options=placement:<placement>&audit=<o-rison-map>

<json>

Java:

void createTable(String table, TableOptions options, Map<String, ?> template, Audit audit);

Request Body:

  • The body of the request must be a valid JSON object. Every object in the table (even deleted objects) will contain the properties specified in this JSON object. It’s OK to pass an empty JSON object: {}.

Request Parameters:

  • table - required - The name of the table to create. The table name must pass the check implemented by com.bazaarvoice.emodb.sor.api.Names.isLegalTableName(): lowercase, [a-z0-9-.:@_], 255 characters or less. Choose the granularity of your tables carefully since it determines the size of your EmoDB Hadoop-based map/reduce jobs. Each map/reduce job takes as input one or more entire table. The System of Record does not provide a mechanism for iterating related records other than a table. In general, good practice is to create a table for every combination of data type and client, for example “review:testcustomer”. By convention, use colons : to separate fields in your table names.
  • audit - required - An O-Rison-encoded map containing information that can be used to trace changes to an object and debug applications that use EmoDB. If your client is written in Java, you may use the rison project to implement the O-Rison encoding. For other languages, see here. There are a few pre-defined keys in Audit.java that clients are encouraged to use. You may pass an empty map of audit information (encoded as an empty string), but this is discouraged. After applying the O-Rison encoding, don’t forget that, as with all url query parameters, the audit argument must be UTF-8 URI-encoded. There are no intrinsic limits on the size of the audit map, but in practice it is limited by the maximum length of the URL.
  • options - required - An O-Rison-encoded map containing options that affect the internal storage of documents in the table. For now, the only option is “placement” which must be one of the configured placements.

Example placement Values :

  • ugc_global:ugc - Sample placement for user generated data replicated globally.
  • catalog_global:cat - Sample placement for client metadata and product catalog data.
  • app_global:default - Sample placement for arbitrary data from generally low traffic applications.

Example:

$ curl -s -XPUT -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_table/review:testcustomer?options=placement:'ugc_global:ugc'&audit=comment:'initial+provisioning',host:aws-tools-02" \
    --data-binary '{"type":"review","client":"TestCustomer"}' | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

Java Example:

Map<String, Object> template = ImmutableMap.of("type", "review", "client", "testcustomer");
TableOptions options = new TableOptionsBuilder().setPlacement("ugc_global:ugc").build();
Audit audit = new AuditBuilder().setProgram("example-app").setLocalHost().build();
dataStore.createTable("review:testcustomer", options, template, audit);

Get Table:

Retrieve the JSON object template specified when a table was created.

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/_table/<table>

Java:

Map<String, Object> getTableTemplate(String table);

Request URL Parameters:

  • debug=true - optional - Sort the JSON to make it easier to read.

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_table/review:testcustomer?debug=true" | jsonpp
{
  "client": "TestCustomer",
  "type": "review"
}

Drop Table

Drop a table and all data it contains.

HTTP:

DELETE /sor/1/_table/<table>?audit=<o-rison-map>

Java:

// No Java client library support.

Tables may only be dropped from the one “system” data center. Attempts to drop a table from another data center will be rejected. All data centers must up and available when tables are created so the data store can ensure that table metadata has replicated to all servers before the table can be used.

Request Parameters:

  • audit - required - An O-Rison-encoded map containing information that can be used to trace changes to an object and debug applications that use EmoDB. If your client is written in Java, you may use the rison project to implement the O-Rison encoding. For other languages, see here. There are a few pre-defined keys in Audit.java that clients are encouraged to use. You may pass an empty map of audit information (encoded as an empty string), but this is discouraged. After applying the O-Rison encoding, don’t forget that, as with all url query parameters, the audit argument must be UTF-8 URI-encoded. There are no intrinsic limits on the size of the audit map, but in practice it is limited by the maximum length of the URL.

Example:

$ curl -s -XDELETE --user drop:local \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_table/review:testcustomer?audit=comment:'termination',host:aws-tools-02" | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

List Tables

List all tables in the System of Record.

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/_table

Java:

Iterator<Table> listTables(@Nullable String fromTableExclusive, long limit);

URL Parameters:

  • limit=10 - optional - Maximum number of tables to return. Defaults to 10. Set to a very large value (eg. Long.MAX_VALUE) to stream all tables.
  • from=<table> - optional - Begin scanning at the first table that follows the specified table name. No default.

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_table
[
  {
    "name": "review:testcustomer",
    "options": {
      "placement": "ugc_global:ugc"
    },
    "template": {
      "type": "review",
      "client": "TestCustomer"
    }
  }
]

Size of Table

Get the approximate number of documents in a table. Getting the exact count is expensive and discouraged if an exact count is not required. The limit parameter will guarantee an exact count up to the provided limit plus an approximate count of remaining documents records if greater. For example, consider the following scenarios:

Request limit attribute Response Wall clock time Breakdown
100 350949 37 ms 100 exact + 350849 approximate remaining records
1000 350825 97 ms 1000 exact + 349825 approximate remaining records
10000 350353 679 ms 10000 exact + 340353 approximate remaining records
null 349154 16,895 ms Exactly 349154 records

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/_table/<table>/size?limit=<limit>

Java:

long getTableApproximateSize(String table, int limit)

URL Parameters:

  • limit=<limit> - optional - Size up to which an exact record count is made and after which the number of remaining records is approximated

Example:

$ curl -s /sor/1/_table/review:testcustomer/size?limit=100
350949

Document API

Create / Update / Delete

Create or replace a document in the system of record:

HTTP:

PUT /sor/1/<table>/<key>?audit=<o-rison-map>
Content-Type: application/json

<json>

Create or modify or delete a document in the system of record:

HTTP:

POST /sor/1/<table>/<key>?audit=<o-rison-map>
Content-Type: application/x.json-delta

<json-delta>

Delete a document in the system of record:

HTTP:

DELETE /sor/1/<table>/<key>?audit=<o-rison-map>

All three operations use the same Java API. The create/update/delete operation is selected by using a different instance of Delta. See Deltas.

Java:

void update(String table, String key, UUID changeId, Delta delta, Audit audit);

Request Body:

  • PUT - The body of the request must be a valid JSON object.
  • POST - The body of the request must be a valid JSON delta string in the format generated by Delta.toString(). From Java, use the Deltas class to create instances of Delta.

Request HTTP Headers:

  • Content-Type: application/json - required for PUT
  • Content-Type: application/x.json-delta - required for POST

Request URL Parameters:

  • audit - required - An O-Rison-encoded map containing information that can be used to trace changes to an object and debug applications that use EmoDB. If your client is written in Java, you may use the rison project to implement the O-Rison encoding. For other languages, see here. There are a few pre-defined keys in Audit.java that clients are encouraged to use. You may pass an empty map of audit information (encoded as an empty string), but this is discouraged. After applying the O-Rison encoding, don’t forget that, as with all url query parameters, the audit argument must be UTF-8 URI-encoded. There are no intrinsic limits on the size of the audit map, but in practice it is limited by the maximum length of the URL.
  • changeId - optional - A time UUID corresponding to when the change should take effect, formatted as a string. If changeId is not provided, a time UUID will be generated as of the time of the HTTP request. Use the TimeUUIDs.newUUID() method here to generate time UUIDs.
  • tags=re-etl&tags=projectx... - optional - Tags to attach to this update. These tags describe and give a context to the changes you are making. Readers can then filter on the desired tags. Tags should be no longer than 8 characters and no more than 3 tags are allowed.
    In practice, this is useful if the databus listeners would like to prioritize events from the same table based on various tags.
  • debug=true - optional - Include in the response the time UUID of the saved delta.

Examples:

$ curl -s -XPUT -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1?audit=comment:'initial+submission',host:aws-submit-09" \
    --data-binary '{"author":"Bob","title":"Best Ever!","rating":5}' | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

$ curl -s -H "Content-Type: application/x.json-delta" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1?audit=comment:'moderation+complete',host:aws-cms-01" \
    --data-binary '{..,"status":"APPROVED"}' | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

$ curl -s -H "Content-Type: application/x.json-delta" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1?tags=re-etl&tags=alpine&audit=comment:'moderation+complete',host:aws-cms-01" \
    --data-binary '{..,"status":"APPROVED"}' | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

$ curl -s -XDELETE "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1?audit=comment:'purge+client',host:aws-tools-02" \
    | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

Java Examples:

// Create
Map<String, Object> json = ImmutableMap.<String, Object>builder()
        .put("author", "Bob")
        .put("title", "Best Ever!")
        .put("rating", 5)
        .build();
Audit audit = new AuditBuilder()
        .setProgram("example-app")
        .setComment("initial submission")
        .setLocalHost()
        .build();
dataStore.update("review:testcustomer", "demo1", TimeUUIDs.newUUID(), Deltas.literal(json), audit);

// Update
Delta delta = Deltas.mapBuilder()
        .put("status", "APPROVED")
        .build();
Audit audit = new AuditBuilder()
        .setProgram("example-app")
        .setComment("moderation complete")
        .setLocalHost()
        .build();
dataStore.update("review:testcustomer", "demo1", TimeUUIDs.newUUID(), delta, audit);

// Delete
Audit audit = new AuditBuilder()
        .setProgram("example-app")
        .setComment("purge client")
        .setLocalHost()
        .build();
dataStore.update("review:testcustomer", "demo1", TimeUUIDs.newUUID(), Deltas.delete(), audit);

Updates and Event Tags:

EmoDB allows for tagging updates (including deletes) with up to 3 event tags of up to 8 chars each. Event tags are primarily used for adding tags to databus events generated by the updates. Databus listeners may subscribe to these event tags. Please note that these tags are only available on the corresponding databus events generated and are not a part of the document.

Get

Get a resolved entity from the system of record as JSON:

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/<table>/<key>

Java:

Map<String, Object> get(String table, String key);

URL Parameters:

  • debug=true - optional - Sort the JSON to make it easier to read.

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1?debug=true" | jsonpp
{
  "~deleted": false,
  "~firstUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:11:53.473Z",
  "~id": "demo1",
  "~lastUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~lastMutateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~signature": "7db2ef78f7830acaaa53f242a5e5ffa1",
  "~table": "review:testcustomer",
  "~version": 2,
  "author": "Bob",
  "client": "TestCustomer",
  "rating": 5,
  "status": "APPROVED",
  "title": "Best Ever!",
  "type": "review"
}

Java Example:

Map<String, Object> json = dataStore.get("review:testcustomer", "demo1");

Multi-Get

Get multiple records from the specified list of coordinates. Coordinate format is <table>/<id>. Note that the records will not be returned in the order it was sent, and may not have a deterministic order.

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/_multiget?id=coordinate1&id=coordinate2

Java:

Map<String, Object> get(List<Coordinate> coordinates, ReadConsistency consistency);

URL Parameters:

  • coordinates - List of coordinates, sent in the form of id=<coordinate1>&id=<coordinate2>.
  • consistency - optional - ReadConsistency.STRONG by default

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_multiget?id=review:testcustomer/demo1&id=review:testcustomer/demo2" | jsonpp
[{
  "~deleted": false,
  "~firstUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:11:53.473Z",
  "~id": "demo1",
  "~lastUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~lastMutateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~signature": "7db2ef78f7830acaaa53f242a5e5ffa1",
  "~table": "review:testcustomer",
  "~version": 2,
  "author": "Bob",
  "client": "TestCustomer",
  "rating": 5,
  "status": "APPROVED",
  "title": "Best Ever!",
  "type": "review"
},
{
  "~deleted": false,
  "~firstUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:11:53.473Z",
  "~id": "demo2",
  "~lastUpdateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~lastMutateAt": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679Z",
  "~signature": "96976f792cc1a52ebf39e8962f6a24d0",
  "~table": "review:testcustomer",
  "~version": 2,
  "author": "Alice",
  "client": "TestCustomer",
  "rating": 5,
  "status": "APPROVED",
  "title": "Amazing!",
  "type": "review"
}]

Java Example:

Iterator<Map<String, Object>> jsonIterator = dataStore.multiGet(
        ImmutableList.of(Coordinate.of("review:testcustomer", "demo1"), Coordinate.of("review:testcustomer", "demo2")));

Get Timeline

Get a historical view of an entity from the system of record in reverse chronological order, for debugging. Note that deltas will be compacted together over time, so do not rely on individual deltas always being available. Audit records are not compacted, but access to audit records may be slow.

GET /sor/1/<table>/<key>/timeline

URL Parameters:

  • data=false - optional - Omit delta and compaction information.
  • audit=true - optional - Include audit information.
  • start=<uuid>|<iso-8601-timestamp> - optional - A time UUID or timestamp of the latest (if reversed) or earliest (if not reversed) record to return.
  • end=<uuid>|<iso-8601-timestamp> - optional - A time UUID or timestamp of the earliest (if reversed) or latest (if not reversed) record to return.
  • reversed=false - optional - Return history from oldest to newest.
  • limit=10 - optional - Maximum number of records to return. Defaults to 10. Set to a very large value (eg. Long.MAX_VALUE) to stream all records.

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer/demo1/timeline?audit=true"
[
  {
    "timestamp": "2012-06-22T20:12:09.679+0000",
    "id": "8bf94df0-bca6-11e1-87ef-001c42000009",
    "delta": "{..,\"status\":\"APPROVED\"}",
    "audit": {
      "comment": "moderation complete",
      "host": "aws-cms-01",
      "~sha1": "4507332be7b42bd100a233be3847e5df99fbeb2d"
    }
  },
  {
    "timestamp": "2012-06-22T20:11:53.473+0000",
    "id": "82507710-bca6-11e1-87ef-001c42000009",
    "delta": "{\"author\":\"Bob\",\"rating\":5,\"title\":\"Best Ever!\"}",
    "audit": {
      "comment": "initial submission",
      "host": "aws-submit-09",
      "~sha1": "33aef50cae4e44cc7be803054335bafdd375644b"
    }
  }
]

Scan

Return the first N non-deleted entities in a table, sorted arbitrarily. Or, if a from parameter is specified, return the next N non-deleted entities that follow the specified document key (exclusive). This can be used to iterate over all documents in a particular table, N entities at a time.

While the sort order is unspecified, it is deterministic such that if you repeatedly scan the system of record, setting from in each scan operation to the value of ~id from the last record from the last scan, you’ll iterate over all entities in a table without omissions or duplicates, subject to concurrent writers adding and deleting documents.

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/<table>

Java:

Iterator<Map<String, Object>> scan(String table, @Nullable String fromKeyExclusive, long limit, ReadConsistency consistency);

URL Parameters:

  • limit=10 - optional - Maximum number of entities to return. Defaults to 10. Set to a very large value (eg. Long.MAX_VALUE) to stream all records.
  • from=<key> - optional - Begin scanning at the first key that follows the specified key. No default.

Example:

$ curl -s "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/review:testcustomer?from=demo1&limit=20"
[
  {
    "author": "Tom",
    "title": "Could be better.",
    "rating": 3,
    "status": "APPROVED",
    "type": "review",
    "client": "TestCustomer",
    "~id": "demo2",
    "~table": "review:testcustomer",
    "~version": 1,
    "~signature": "a5a611fbc9399a27c6098f460ddd3402",
    "~deleted": false,
    "~firstUpdateAt": "2012-07-30T21:33:28.908Z",
    "~lastUpdateAt": "2012-07-30T21:33:33.194Z"
    "~lastMutateAt": "2012-07-30T21:33:33.194Z"
  }
]

In combination with the Databus API, the scan operation can be used to seed and update an external replica of a table in the system of record:

  1. Create a databus subscription for the table.
  2. Scan all rows in the table, copying the data to the external replica.
  3. Process databus events starting from when the scan was initiated.

Performance note: there is a substantial performance overhead to performing a scan. It was designed to support occasional bulk extract of all data in a table. For efficient search across entities it’s usually a better idea to create a secondary index initialized using EmoDB scans and kept up to date by listening to databus updates.

A scan may fail if the client loses its connection to the EmoDB server before all results have been returned. To work around this issue and automatically re-create the connection to the server when it gets lost, use the methods in the com.bazaarvoice.emodb.sor.client.DataStoreStreaming class. For example:

// Stream all rows from an EmoDB table and process them one-by-one.
for (Map<String, Object> row : DataStoreStreaming.scan(dataStore, table, ReadConsistency.STRONG)) {
    // process row
}

// Stream all rows from an EmoDB table and process them in batches.
int batchSize = 100;
for (List<Map<String, Object>> batch : Iterables.partition(
        DataStoreStreaming.scan(dataStore, table, ReadConsistency.STRONG), batchSize)) {
    // process batch of rows
}

If you’re writing your client in a language other than Java, the chances are your HTTP client library doesn’t stream JavaScript results in an efficient way out-of-the-box. In that case, set the scan limit to a number that won’t blow out memory (eg. 1000) and perform repeated scans, setting the “from key” to the ID of the last row in each batch.

Parallel Scan

To scan the system of record in parallel, call the getSplits() method to get a list of split identifiers. Then, in parallel, scan the data in each split by calling the getSplit() method repeatedly.

HTTP:

GET /sor/1/_split/<table>

GET /sor/1/_split/<table>/<split>

Java:

Collection<String> getSplits(String table, int desiredRecordsPerSplit);

Iterator<Map<String, Object>> getSplit(String table, String split, @Nullable String fromKeyExclusive, long limit,
                                       ReadConsistency consistency);

URL Parameters for getSplits():

  • size=10000 - optional - Desired number of entities per split. Defaults to 10,000.

URL Parameters for getSplit():

  • limit=10 - optional - Maximum number of entities to return. Defaults to 10. Set to a very large value (eg. Long.MAX_VALUE) to stream all records in the split.
  • from=<key> - optional - Begin scanning at the first key that follows the specified key. No default.

A split fetch may fail if the client loses its connection to the EmoDB server before all results have been returned. To work around this issue and automatically re-create the connection to the server when it gets lost, use the methods in the com.bazaarvoice.emodb.sor.client.DataStoreStreaming class. See the following example:

final DataStore dataStore = ...;
ExecutorService executor = ...;
final String table = "review:testcustomer";

// Split up the job of fetching all the data in a table into large tasks by fetching a list of
// "split" identifiers where each split contains approximately 10,000 documents, more or less.
Collection<String> splits = dataStore.getSplits(table, 10000);

// Execute each large task.  Typically this will be spread across multiple machines.  This
// example uses multiple threads and an ExecutorService for the purpose of illustration.
for (final String split : splits) {
    executor.submit(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            // Stream all rows from an EmoDB table split and process them one-by-one.
            for (Map<String, Object> row : DataStoreStreaming.getSplit(dataStore, table, split, ReadConsistency.STRONG)) {
                // process row
            }
        }
    });
}

If you’re writing your client in a language other than Java, the chances are your HTTP client library doesn’t stream JavaScript results in an efficient way out-of-the-box. In that case, set the getSplit limit to a number that won’t blow out memory (eg. 1000) and call getSplit repeatedly, setting the “from key” to the ID of the last row in each batch.

Compact

Force compaction of a document in the system of record, for debugging:

POST /sor/1/<table>/<key>/compact

URL Parameters:

  • ttl=<seconds> - optional - Assume updates older than the specified number of seconds are fully consistent across all data centers.

Facades

Motivation for a “Facade”

Let’s talk about data locality, using an example.

We may have data that has restrictions on where it can be stored (think EU privacy laws, etc.). So, lets say we have a table called “local_data_eu” that has some local data for EU users, and, rightfully, only exists in the “EU” placement. We also have a similar table “local_data_us” that exists for US users. Now, let’s say there is a distributed service that would like to display the “local data” for each placement. The service is deployed in both the regions - “EU” and “US”. The issue is that this service now needs to map to the right table - “local_data_eu” or “local_data_us”, based on where the service is deployed. This can cause silly mapping issues where all applications are trying to get local_data for their appropriate placements.

More importantly, there is an implicit abstraction leak here. The application would have to know what data centers are part of what Emo placements. As mentioned earlier, placements are an EmoDB abstraction and one or more data centers can be a part of a single Emo placement.

Facades attempt to solve this problem by creating one table “local_data” in, say, “EU” placement and then creating a facade of it in the “US” placement. Now, when EmoDB in US datacenter is polled for “local_data”, EmoDB will return the data from the US facade of “local_data”. Alternatively, if EmoDB’s EU service is polled, the EU “local_data” table is retrieved. Applications need not worry about what data is placed by what name.

Another vital use case for us is that if we want to anonymize/sanitize sensitive data from one placement to other placements, we can simply copy “anonymized” data from the master table to its facades in other placements. Applications would just need to access the same table, and based on the data center they reside in, they just get the right data back.

Note that facades are not to be confused as replicas. A table and its facade can have completely different data sets. It is up to the consumer to populate their facades with whatever data they deem fit. That said, keeping the facade’s content roughly synchronized with source table causes the least confusion for the table’s consumers.

For these reasons there are several restrictions for facades:

  • A facade can only be created for an existing table.
  • A facade cannot be created in the same placement as the source table.
  • A facade cannot be created in any placement which shares any data center with the source table OR any other facades of the same table. In other words, there must be a single unambiguous record store for each data center where the table is available, be it the table itself or one of its facades.

To summarize, an EmoDB facade is a special table that has the same name as an existing table, but in a different placement. For example, if a table “review:eu-customer” exists in ugc_eu keyspace, then EmoDB allows for creating a facade in ugc_us keyspace with the same table name. Now, when EmoDB gets a request for this table in US data center, it will be directed to the facade of the table available in ugc_us keyspace.

Create Facade

Create a new facade.

HTTP:

PUT /sor/1/_facade/<table>?options=placement:<placement>&audit=<o-rison-map>

Java:

void createFacade(String table, FacadeOptions options, Audit audit);

Example:

$ curl -s -XPUT -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_facade/review:testcustomer?options=placement:'ugc_global:ugc'&audit=comment:'initial+provisioning',host:aws-tools-02" | jsonpp
{
  "success": true
}

Get

Getting a resolved document from a facade works the exact same way as it does from a table.

Update documents in a facade

Create/update/delete documents in a facade.

HTTP:

POST /sor/1/_facade/<table>/<key>?audit=<o-rison-map>
Content-Type: application/x.json-delta

<json-delta>

Java:

void updateAllForFacade(Iterable<Update> updates);

Example:

$ curl -s -XPUT --user "facade:local" -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    "http://localhost:8080/sor/1/_facade/review:testcustomer/demo1?audit=comment:'initial+submission',host:aws-submit-09" \
    --data-binary '{"author":"Bob","~sourceVersion":100,"title":"Anonymized Best Ever!","rating":5}'
{
  "success": true
}

Drop a facade

Drop and delete all data in a facade.

HTTP:

DELETE /sor/1/_facade/<table>/<key>?placement=<placement>&audit=<o-rison-map>

Java:

// No support for dropping a facade